10. SARS-CoV-2 Treatment and Vaccine Development

There is no vaccine for any SARS coronavirus. Nevertheless, aided by worldwide efforts to sequence the genome of the virus, four companies and academic institutions have reported vaccine candidates they have been testing in animals, and human trials are beginning. Nevertheless, there are many barriers before global immunisation is feasible and it is estimated that vaccines will not be available for at least 12 months, in order to make a vaccine that is long-lasting and suitable for everyone.

Interestingly, the Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG) vaccine has previously been shown to have some protective effects on viral infections, as well as long-term efficacy against tuberculosis; Randomised clinical trials are underway to study whether health care workers can be better protected (via reduced intensity of infection, not full immunity) via BCG stimulation of innate immunity.